This paper was presented at
Psychology: The Indian Contribution
National Conference on
Indian Psychology, Yoga and Consciousness
organised by the Indian Council of Philosophical Research
at the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education
Pondicherry, India, 10-13 December 2004
(click to enlarge)
"Self awareness of the teacher develops holistic approach to education"
From J. Krishnamurti's Perspective of education
Dr. G. Aruna Mohan
Reader in Education (Psychology)
St. Jospeh's College of Education for Women,
Guntur, A.P., INDIA
Education as on today is making the learned being to earn a livelihood, to be successful in job and to go high of that ladder but is unable to develop good, intelligent, happy and healthy human beings.Krishnamurti proposes learning about ones own inward nature and psychological structure; observing ones own movements of mind, thoughts, feelings, fears along with learning about the outer world as an obvious necessity to change the human condition. Primarily, the teacher is to be aware of the forms of his own conditioning which block his originality and freshness of his understanding of anything in its totality. Self-aware teacher understands that every human being represents the whole humanity and feels his utmost responsibility. Psychological freedom facilitates the learners to look into their fears, prejudices, psychological hurts and to be free of them. Both of them can see in their relationship, each of their activities and reactions which make them sensitive, diligent and intelligent rather than ambitious, competitive and cunningly thoughtful to care only their benefit at the cost of every other. If the teacher is neither authoritative to curb the originality of learners nor imposing ideals but showing them the facts of both the inward and outward life to exercise their capacities he can facilitate their utmost development. So that they develop the art of living to put things in their right place. Thus there is a place in their hearts and minds for love and concern to flower in goodness and integrated action.Thus the foundations for life long education process are laid at an early stage. When the external skill and internal peace are harmonised, when the scientific spirit and true religious spirit are harmonised the humanity flourishes. Religiously bankrupt human being without depth in his relationship, with all his miseries of life, hatred, jealousy, anger, greed etc., needs such a means of education to transcend because it emphasises truth in everyday life and relationships which reflect love, understanding and learning out of intelligence.
At the dawn of the third millennium the Education Commission led by UNESCO affirms that "education has a fundamental role to play in personal and social development' as one of the principal means available to foster a deeper and more harmonious form of human development and thereby to reduce poverty, exclusion, ignorance, oppression and war". 2 P13
When we look at the present scenario the outward progress seems to open any number of opportunities but complicating the very living. Man is amidst all the marvels of the progressing science and technology, but is not at ease with his neighbour. His excellent abilities to measure and calculate are weighing whether there is any benefit in any of their relationships or not; his rich abilities to think, reason and imagine are invested in his activities to beat out the other; his memory abilities to store up the ill feelings, fears, hurts, failures that keep up aggression, prejudice and revenge. The well- developed cognitive capacities are invested to generate negative emotions, negative thoughts and negative actions. It is high time to critically examine the very saying, 'knowledge is wisdom'. Is this, the knowledge of academic subjects? or any other sort of knowledge ?
The Education Commission of UNESCO points out that education is to enable "each person to grasp the individuality of other people and to understand the world's erratic progression towards a certain unity, but its process must begin with self understanding through an inner voyage whose milestones are knowledge, meditation and the practice of self-criticism". 2 P19
This message should guide educational thinking both locally and globally too. In this self understanding everything may fall into place, whether it be the requirements of science and technology, knowledge of the self and of the environment or the development of skills enabling each person to function effectively either in a family or as a citizen or as a productive member of society. Commission in no way under values the central role of brain power and innovation.
Then and now, educationists who are instrumental to Kothari commission Report 1966 and the educationists in the twenty first century feel that no reform is more important or urgent than to transform education, to endeavour to relate it to the life, needs and environment of the people.
The Mind of a Whole or True Human Being is Religious and Scientific
Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895-1986) of 20th Century points out that the function of education is to cultivate both the religious mind and scientific mind. The word religion comes from the root 'to bind', to bind ourselves to some thing greater. 'The scientific mind is very factual, discovery is its mission, its perception'. Such a mind moves from fact to fact. Religious mind is a creative and compassionate mind. Such a mind only can experience that called God, which is immeasurable. To him a human being is a true human being when the scientific spirit and the true religious spirit go together. Such human beings create a good world. The new human being combines both the scientific and the religious mind, and therefore is harmonious without any contradiction within himself. A religious mind is a very factual mind with what is actually happening in the world outside and the world inside. He finds that the world outside is the expression of the world inside. A religious life is a life of order, diligence, dealing with what is actually within oneself, without any illusion. The first step is the awareness of one's own self in relation to others. The teacher in Krishnamurti takes the reader into an inward journey of self - discovery.
Kothari Commission explained that secularism is not an irreligious or anti-religious policy, it does not belittle the importance of religions as such. It hopes that "a vitalised study of science with its emphasis on open-mindedness, tolerance and objectivity would inevitably lead to the development of a more secular outlook, in the sense in which we use the word, amongst those who profess different religions'. 3 P37 This process needs to be carefully and wisely encouraged. In the words of Dr. Iqbal, "the spirit finds its opportunity in the material, the natural and the secular. All that is secular is, therefore, sacred in the roots of its being". 3 P37
This is what we envisage as the direction of our future development. We believe that India should strive to bring science and the values of the spirit together and in harmony and thereby pave the way for the eventual emergence of a society which would cater to the needs of the whole man and not merely to a particular fragment of his personality.
The Commission also expects that the university departments in comparitive religion should be specially concerned with the ways in which these values can be taught wisely and effectively and should undertake preparation of special literature for use by students and teachers. It should be one of the important objectives of training institutions to prepare teachers for introducing the spiritual values in all the institutions along with moral and social values.
The noble task of education is to pay full respect to pluralism, to lift the minds of people to the plane of the universal and in some measure to transcend themselves. Perhaps the survival of the humanity depends there on. Hence self-awareness of teachers is of prime importance to open a new leaf to the coming generations.
This paper intends to present the propositions of J. Krishnamurti on education who introduces the long vision in education. "Every one is thinking in terms of doing something immediately. I think one has to take a long view of the whole problem and I don't think a specialist can do this because specialists always think in terms of action that is immediate, though immediate action is necessary, I think the function of education is to bring about a mind that will not only act in the immediate but go beyond." 4 PP82-83
Need for Self - Knowledge
We understand how the life is becoming superficial due to the kind of living interms of the immediate. Living such an empty life and shallow life we are always trying to fill with cars, books, sex, drink, more clothes or trying to escape into more beliefs, more gods, more dogmas, more authoritarian attitudes, more cricket. Education, hence, is to take the totality of life. Lack of place to self-knowledge, perhaps is the reason behind the lack of long vision about the totality of life. Krishnamurti points out that, "Ignorance is this unawareness of the whole structure and nature of the mind, the brain, and of all its movement, that is the very essence of ignorance. You learn from books and from your professors, pass examinations, get a few degrees and get a job - that is nothing, that is necessary in this mad world, but to be totally aware of the extra ordinary movement, the beauty, the ability, the quickness of all that inward movement; to be unconscious, to be unaware of it is not only ignorance, it brings its own destruction". 12 P39
Acquisition of knowledge of various things - literary, scientific, technological, sociological and economic knowledge are obviously necessary to acquire a job, to keep up the job by performing well. Man is doing extra-ordinary things, fantastic technological advancement; is able to meet the world, nature and its storms; going to the moon and beyond with such knowledge. But we have not inquired into the whole field of man's ignorance. Ignorance is utter disregard and utter neglect of the complicated and extra ordinarily subtle, psychological world. Krishnamurti finds that the outward crisis in any form in any field mostly is due to crisis in the human consciousness. It needs a fundamental revolution, inward revolution which affects the outer.
So we should not disregard the inner, because the inner demands, the inner urges, appetites, drives, compulsions change the outer-the outer form, the outward expression and outward morality. As on today education is considering the outer and neglecting the inner. We are not to neglect the outer in considering the inner. It means though we change the outer with new laws, new structures of society, new economic and social conditions, without understanding the inner nature of our own selves we do not solve our problems. The little order brought by outer changes will be destroyed by our inner demands, greed and fear which may even bring out total perversion of the human mind. Hence it is very important to inquire into understanding the inner i.e., learning the inner.
Teacher is to Look at Life Unconditioned
"It is very important for the teachers to set about unconditioning themselves, and also help the children to be free of conditioning. Knowing the conditioning influence of parents, of tradition of society, the teacher must encourage the children not thoughtlessly to accept, but to investigate, to question".7 P50-51
The teacher himself has to question the traditions, customs, rituals, use his intelligence to examine them without prejudice because prejudiced investigation only strengthens the bias. He requires a great deal of freedom to investigate and discover the truth of the matter. If he sees how various influences mould children he helps them in how to think but not what to think. Other wise the children become automatic machines, functioning without creativity and without much original thought.
The real teacher is not only to make the students keep on studying, passing examinations and make them ready to get a good job but also to meet life intelligently affectionately and happily without trying to escape from the problems or ignore or afraid of the problems. He is to help himself and students to inquire and find out what is preventing intelligence, love and concern for each other. When the teacher is aware of his own conditioning - racial, national, political, religious prejudices and self - centered activities that occupy his mind he can be free of these futile conditions and also helps the students to be free in their minds and hearts.If the conditioning is broken away out of understanding, then there is intelligence. To be a happy and creative human being, one must have a great deal of initiative.
Learning is not Additive but Active Process
Awareness of the whole movement of life is learning to Krishnamurti, whether it be learning about the outer world or learning the inner world of ones own self. He derives from the Latin word 'school', the meaning leisure, where both the educator and the one being educated are learning.
"Leisure means a mind that is not constantly occupied with something. It implies a mind that has infinite time to observe.; Observe what is happening around one and what is happening within oneself; to have leisure to listen, to see clearly. Leisure implies freedom and it is only in this state that the mind can learn, not only science, history, mathematics but also about oneself; and one can learn about oneself in relationship". 6 P12
Learning academic subjects is only one aspect of education. More significant learning is found to be learning about one's own self either to the student or to the teacher. Inward learning is in quietness of the mind, freedom. Teacher is to understand why and how to go inward. It is important to have leisure so that the teacher and student can quietly and seriously talk over their relationships in which their actual reactions, barriers and susceptibilities are seen without twisting imagining to please each other or suppressing them and be free of them.
"Learning about oneself is never static. Oneself is a living, moving, dynamic thing. Self learning is not an additive process, it is an active process. Learning is one thing and accumulating knowledge is another. If we look at ourselves with knowledge, we don't look at all.We are looking at it with an image. If we do not have any image but just look then we are learning. When we so learn there is no end to the look of ourselves". .12 P78
When both the teacher and students wipe away the psychological past, images in their relationships, each of them has free mind and heart to be attentive totally to anything, whether academic subjects or matters of relationship. Their minds then are incapable of being hurt but capable of understanding.Krishnamurti alerts the teacher saying, 'you are the whole of humanity'. All the human beings, whether they live in affluent societies, in castles or in huts, share the human consciousness.
Response is whole not partial
"A human being psychologically is the whole of man kind. He not only represents it but he is the whole of the human species. He is essentially the whole psyche of man kind. On this actuality various cultures have imposed the illusion that each human being is different. In this illusion man kind has been caught for centuries and this illusion has become a reality. If one observes closely the whole psychological structure of one self one will find that as one suffers, so all man kind suffers in various degrees. If you are lonely, the whole man kind knows this loneliness. Agony, jealousy, envy and fear are known to all. So psychologically, inwardly one is like another human being. There may be differences physically, biologically.... So, Psychologically you are the world; you are responsible for the whole of man kind, not for yourself as a separate human being, which is a psychological illusion. As the representative of the whole human race, your response is whole not partial'. 6 P140
If the teacher grasps the full significance that one is psychologically the world, he sees that the student also understands its significance. He feels both his immediate responsibility and responsibility through out his life. It starts with self-awareness in his relationship and in observing the ways of one's thinking, talking, eating, dressing, actions and reactions, responsibility to earth, to nature, and to each other. Each one is related, dependent and co-existing with others. He sees hunger, dislike, hurt, agony, fear are common to all human beings. Out of understanding the common ground to the whole humanity he feels total responsibility to the mankind, of not a particular nation, community or some kind of programme but for all the mankind. 'Then this art of responsibility becomes over powering love'. He can see the truth that psychologically every human being is inseparable from the rest of man kind. If the teacher does not have such awareness he spends his time for verbal clarity, forces the child to excel only in academic subjects and imposes what to think and do. Krishnamurti points out what is significant to teachers.
"What we are in ourselves is much more important than the traditional question of what to teach the child". 4 P111
Education is to Awaken Intelligence
Krishnamurti further points out to help the student to awaken his intelligence and to learn the importance of right relationship.
"Knowledge is not intelligence.Intelligence can use knowledge. Knowledge can be clever, bright and utilitarian but that is not intelligence. Intelligence comes naturally and easily when the whole nature and structure of relationship is seen".6 P12
Accumulation of knowledge about the outer world, remembering it and thinking accordingly helps in learning academic subjects. Knowledge did not stop degeneration but increased corruption, violence, killings though we know that we should not do so. Mind refuses to let the accumulated knowledge since centuries, the old to go. It does not allow the mind to be free. Understanding the necessity and nature of freedom is awakening of intelligence.
Accumulation of knowledge will not lead to intelligence. Intelligence can function with knowledge about the outer or inner. Intelligence sees the fact that knowledge can never solve human problems. 'The continuous movement of knowledge however specialised puts the mind into a groove, into a narrow way of life'. Responsible teacher sees the danger of specialisation with all its limitations and strange brutality.
The teacher can understand in freedom how the knowledge, the past, the images or conclusions about him and others intrude in relationships. He can then be concerned about the images of students imposed by parents or society. So that both the teacher and student can be free of their images and allow their sensitivity to remain to respond to the context. "When intelligence is active in daily life, it will tell us when to co-operate and when not to. The very nature of intelligence is sensitivity and this sensitivity is love". 6 P90
As we are not paying any heed to the totality of our lives, love and sensitivity are occupying so small a place. As on today love seems to be based on an exchange of gratification, cunning calculations and signing of a contract to live in mutual security which is not love at all. Due to lack of love there are self protective demands and reactions and there by increase of problems in any area of human action.
An affectionate teacher understands students and develops relationship to facilitate learning in co-operation and mutual concern. In this interaction with its reactions one begins to see the nature of oneself - the thoughts, the desires, the attachments, the identifications and so on. Each is acting as a mirror to the other; each is observing in the mirror exactly what he is because the psychological understanding of oneself is far more important than the gathering of facts and storing them up as knowledge for skill in action. 'The inner always overcomes the outer. The outer has not changed man'.
We never seem to live fully happily though we are learning to earn a living. The fact is that our knowledge and skills are not changing the basic condition of human beings deeply. Teacher can further understand in the mirror of his relationships that the inward poverty, emptiness of the heart make man in every form of outward show, power, wealthy possessions and so on.
Mental Blocks to Freedom of Learning
Teacher, free from conditioning, can understand the inherited tendencies of the children and environmental influences which condition the mind and heart and sustain fear and also can help them to break through their conditioning. Teacher is to help them to come out of their fears because "Fear in any form cripples the mind, destroys sensitivity, shrinks the senses. Fear is the heavy burden which man has always carried. From this fear arise various forms of superstition - religious, scientific and imaginary" 6 P14
Fear in physical dangers alerts us to take safe position. But we have many psychological and physical fears. They are imaginary but not factual to the most extent. If the teacher probes into the nature of psychological fears he can be aware that our desire to be secure is causing fear.Fear makes us conform, imitate and submit to authority. Thus, it prevents creative living. Where there is fear there is no freedom to the mind and heart to have the creative spark. When the teacher can observe this fact he gives primary importance to deal with fears of him and of students. Teacher and student together can explore the whole nature and structure of fear because facing the fact of fear is the central issue rather than the usual response to control or accept or deny or rationalise fear.
Krishnamurti encourages to learn about fear without discriminating him as a teacher and the other as a learner. "You will if you will allow fear to tell its ancient story. Listen to it attentively without interference, for it is telling you the history of your own fear. When you so listen you will discover that this fear is not separate from you, you are that very fear, that very reaction with a word attached to it..... It is the discovery of the newness of your own fear. Facing the fact of fear, without any movement of thought, is the ending of fear. Not any particular fear but the very root of fear is disintegrated in this observation. There is no observer, only observation". 6 P18
Such an observation of fear without self-consciousness about him as a teacher drops the element of self in the teacher momentarily.In that light of observation there is no intruding or movement of thought. Hence fear drops from the mind. Hence facing fear to understand it directly is significant because fear kills or perverts the intelligent understanding of life, the spirit of adventure and spontaneity. Fear is one of the causes of self-centered activity. "To be without fear is the beginning of wisdom and only the right kind of education can bring about freedom from fear in which alone there is deep and creative intelligence". 4 P35
Another barrier is the authority of teacher because authority denies freedom to be original in expression i.e., it demands the students to follow the authority, to obey and to conform to it. The true teacher is to instruct, point out, inform, without the corrupting influence of authority because, "Authority is the breaking up of integrity, the whole, the complete." 6 P34
Teacher is also to be aware of the pain of comparison, cruelty in it, and how it hardens the mind and heart, the delicate instruments.It breeds a great deal of conflict and hypocrisy. This hypocrisy leads them to live with beliefs and ideals which are unrelated to daily life. 'To live without comparison is to have integrity'.
Teachers usually compare students and label them which is imposition of an image over the student. They tend to develop competitive spirit expecting intense involvement in their studies. But it does more harm than good silently by developing jealousy, anger, aggression, malpractice, corruption and selfishness.Teacher is to care students faults, help to rectify them, allow and encourage to take further steps but there is no necessity to compare with others and create a gap which causes conflict between 'what he is' and the ideal of 'what he should be'.
"Ideals corrupt the mind. They are born of ideas, judgements and hopes. It takes away attention from the fact, what is, and so directs attention to the fanciful". 6 P33 Ideals are impositions on facts. 'What is happening' istwisted to conform to what should be. Teachers are to be aware how the fact is instantly translated into an idea or conclusion which dictates reactions. So teachers are to teach the students to deal with the psychological fact but not to think of the ideal states. Corruption of the mind begins with the avoidance of the fact, which is actually there in the mind. This movement from the fact to the idea or ideal is creating a conflict between 'what is' and 'what should be' (ideal). Conflict in any form is an indication of resistance to the free flow of life energy. Conflict simply wastes energy.
Meditation is Silence that Comes in Self - Knowing
"You will find that all the barriers drop away where you yourself are beginning to listen, to observe, to find out. There is no reason for removing the barriers; and the moment you bring in a reason, you are not removing them. The miracle, the greatest blessing is to give your own inward perception an opportunity to remove the barriers".7 P133
When we want to remove the barriers and practice it that is the work of the mind. The mind which created the barriers cannot remove. No attempt on its part can remove them.
Then the mind becomes silent, quiet, very still, and in that stillness the barriers drop away without leaving a residue. This self awareness is meditation. Meditation begins in self - knowing. When one knows oneself as one is, without the accumulating centre, out of that self - knowing comes intelligence which can meet life and that intelligence is creative. So, what is important is to understand our Psychological dependence in relationship. It is in uncovering the hidden things of the heart and mind, in understanding our own loneliness, emptiness, there is freedom, not from relationship, but from psychological dependence which causes conflict, misery, pain and fear.
"Thought is the response of memory accumulated through various experiences, real or imagined, which are stored as knowledge in the brain". 6 P88
Thought is the actuality of our daily life. It has put together the turbine and great temples of earth, the racket, and also the enmity in men and wars. Man worships thought, admires its subtleties because it has brought great advances in technology besides destruction, violence and cruelties it has generated and generating. When the teacher is aware of the whole story of thought and its movement through out the centuries he gets insight into its relevance only in the necessities of life. But not in day to day life in relationships because thought dominates and pollutes relationship. Teacher has to expose thought to the bright light of observation. "Observation is not from a fixed point, from a belief, prejudice or conclusion. The very observation of thought is the observation of your whole being and this very being is put together by thought'. 6 P44
Thought or intellect has become the most of human life, which actually is only a part. This limited part, thought is given the masters place out of our ignorance. Intelligence is whole in which thought is only a part.
Intelligence is the Capacity to Perceive the ESSENTIAL
"Intelligence is the capacity to perceive the whole, to perceive the essential.Intelligence is incapable of dividing the senses, the emotions, the intellect from each other. It regards them as one unitary movement. Because its perception is always whole, it is incapable of dividing man from man, of setting man against nature. Because in its very nature intelligence is whole, it is incapable of killing. When intelligence is active in our daily life, it will tell us when to co-operate and when not to. The very nature of intelligence is sensitivity and this sensitivity is love". 6 P98
From the teacher’s watchfulness of his own mind, his intense awareness of his own thoughts and feelings, awareness of his own ways of conditioning comes intelligence. So he must begin to awaken his intelligence by being aware of his psychological processes. He can be friendly, affectionate and concerned with a quality of attentive comprehension, if he breaks down all the hindrances which make him dull and thoughtless. He can be sensitive to what is happening around and within him. He grows from innumerable complexities to simplicity. In order to help the child to be intelligent he helps to break down all social distinctions and prejudices, discourage the acquisitive pursuit of power and domination, encourage right kind of self observation and experiencing of life as a whole and help their mind to go above and beyond itself to discover the real.Then there can be no unreasonable and fanatical emphasis on any particular phase of life. With the simplicity in ones inward life and in outward needs he can develop integrated outlook on life. Krishnamurti, hence, points out that,
"Education is not merely acquiring knowledge, gathering and correlating facts; it is to see the significance of life as a whole. The function of education is to create human beings who are integrated and therefore intelligent. We may take degrees and be mechanically efficient without being intelligent. Intelligence is not mere information. One who has not studied may be more intelligent than the learned.Intelligence is the capacity to perceive the essential, the what is', and to awaken this capacity, in one self and others is education". 4 P14
Teacher is to understand that the present day education is over emphasising technique without under standing life, without comprehending the ways of thought and desire. If life is lived only at one level disregarding its total process it is destroying life. Integrated understanding of life enables him to meet its ever increasing complexities. Technological progress cannot resolve inner, psychological conflicts and pressures. Over emphasis on technique and technical knowledge without understanding the total process of life is a means of destruction. Life is pain, joy, beauty, ugliness, love. When we understand it as a whole, at every level, that understanding creates its own technique. But the contrary is not true; technique can never bring about creative understanding. We cultivate capacity and efficiency without understanding life, without comprehensive perception of thought and desire. Technique gives us economic and psychological security. Our capacity and efficiency also give us a feeling of vitality but of aggressive independence. But to emphasise capacity due to the desire for psychological security is to deny the fullness of life. Right kind of education is to help man to experience the integrated process of life. Intelligence puts capacity and technique in their right place. If the teacher has something to say, the very saying of it creates its own style.
'Self awareness helps the individual to be mature and free, to flower greatly in love and goodness'. This intelligent revolt "comes with self knowledge through the awareness of ones own thought and feeling.It is only when we face experience as it comes and do not avoid disturbance that we keep intelligence highly awakened; and intelligence highly awakened is intuition, which is the only true guide in life". 4 P11
Education can develop good Human beings when there is Love
"Only love can bring about the understanding of another.Where there is love there is instantaneous communion with the other, on the same level and at the same time. A mind that has merely been trained in factual knowledge is incapable of meeting life with its variety, its subtlety, its depths and great heights. When we train our children according to a system of thought or a particular discipline, when we teach them to think within departmental divisions, we prevent them form growing into integrated men and women, and therefore they are incapable of thinking intelligently, which is to meet life as a whole". 4 P24
If a teacher does not have love and understanding the children may be forced to do, feel and think as they impose. The pursuit of an ideal excludes love. The right kind of educator does not belong to any sect, to any organised religion; he is free of beliefs and rituals, for he knows that they are only illusions, fancies, superstitions projected by the desires of those who create them. He knows that reality or God comes into being only when there is self-knowledge and therefore freedom. Self - awareness brings the strength of patience and love which facilitate in dealing with the impressionable, volatile, sensitive, afraid and affectionate children. Other wise the teacher looks for quick and easy remedies and hope for marvelous and automatic results. 'The worship of success in any field, is obviously detrimental to intelligence'.
Krishnamurti proposes the purpose of education which is to develop good human beings. Education is to help the student and the teacher to flower in goodness, naturally. "This flowering is the total unfoldment and cultivation of our minds, our hearts and our physical well being. The flowering of the mind can take place only when there is clear perception, objective, non-personal, unburdened by any kind of imposition upon it. With the awakening of heart, which is not stimulated, romantic or imaginary, but of goodness which is born out of affection and love and with the cultivation of the body, the right kind of food, proper exercise which will bring about deep sensitivity. When these are in complete harmony - that is the mind, the heart and the body, then the flowering comes naturally, easily and in excellence". 6 P8
The flowering of goodness does not lie in knowing mathematics and biology or in passing examinations and having a successful career. Goodness cannot bloom in the soil of persuasion in any form or in compulsion or with reward of any sort. "Freedom is essential for the beauty of goodness". Goodness flowers in freedom of mind and heart. Goodness that is shown in behaviour is based on sensitivity which is expressed in action. Calculated behaviour is not good.It shows itself in politeness, in consideration for others; and when there is flowering of goodness career and their necessary activities are touched by its beauty because of integrity in behaviour.
Education, according to Krishnamurti is holistic if it is to know the outer world and inner world. Knowledge about the outer world is given its right place only when there is self-knowledge, which is the knowledge about the whole humanity. Consciousness is common to the whole human kind. But human life has lost its prestine quality in its egoistic pursuits and has made life meaningless with shallow purpose of achievement and success. Man's intelligence to realise the truth, to be compassionate and to be unconditionally good are unlived.
Self-awareness on the part of teachers is an urgent necessity to deal with the crisis in consciousness which reflects as many forms of crises. He can be self critically aware of his own conditioning and can help the students to be aware. More than that, observation without the observer observed duality or meditation of teacher brings in freedom to facilitate his journey into the depths of mind and to go beyond. The holistic approaches of such teachers bring in a new generation of human beings and a good society.
"Wisdom comes with Self - Knowledge"
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